Train movements on curved track sections which can generate wheel squeal.
Extended idling of locomotives on railway lines, rail sidings, or in yards.
Trains waiting at specific or designated locations to cross another track or waiting for a signal, an inspector, or a crew change. Whistles are sounded before train movements.
Passage of trains over rail track discontinuities such as switches, frogs, special track work, hot boxes, dragging equipment, wheel impact detectors, joints for signalization, and at-grade intersections with roads and other rail infrastructure.
Snow clearing equipment at switches in yards and along corridors (specifically on rail lines carrying relatively high volumes of rail traffic in proximity to at-grade road crossings).
Audible warning devices of all types, whether mounted on the train or near at-grade road crossings.
Rail yard operations involving trains stopping and starting, assembling of trains, shunting of cars (switching), retarders, use of signalling devices, repair work.
Intermodal yard operations, including the transfer of containers.
Rapid succession of commuter train traffic particularly during morning and afternoon rush hours.
Unscheduled train operations as a result of equipment or facility malfunctions requiring changes to operations, such as the rerouting of trains.
Tracks in need of repair (loose joints, rough rail, ground settlements) can increase the noise from the activities described above. Increased rail traffic can also result in increased noise.