Travelling with an Attendant in the Federal Transportation System: A Resource Tool for Persons with Disabilities and Carriers
Table of Contents
1. Persons with disabilities
Whether you wish to travel with an attendant, or you are required to do so by an air, ferry or rail carrier, you will find information to help you plan your travel and understand your rights and responsibilities.
2. Air, ferry and rail carriers
This resource tool also provides information to help carriers facilitate travel for their passengers with disabilities when this may entail travel with an attendant.
For persons with disabilities
- What are your rights and responsibilities if you wish to travel with an attendant, or if you would rather travel alone?
- What will be the role of your attendant during your travel?
- The reasons why a carrier may require you to travel with an attendant.
- How to best plan your trip when travelling with an attendant.
- How to determine whether a person with a disability needs to travel with an attendant.
This resource tool is not a set of rules about when a person with a disability must be permitted to travel with or without an attendant, or be required by a carrier to travel with one.
This resource tool also does not address situations where:
- a person with a disability requires a personal attendant at destination but not during their travel;
- a person with a disability prefers to travel with a companion for various personal reasons.
Throughout this publication, key terms defined in the glossary have been underlined.
The Canadian Transportation Agency is an independent, quasi-judicial tribunal and economic regulator of the Government of Canada. The Agency makes decisions on a wide range of matters involving air, rail and marine modes of transportation under the authority of Parliament. For certain accessibility matters, the Agency also has jurisdiction over extra-provincial bus transportation. Part V of the Canada Transportation Act provides the Agency with a human rights mandate to eliminate undue obstacles to the mobility of persons with disabilities in the federal transportation system to ensure that persons with disabilities have equal access to transportation services.
In exercising its human rights mandate, the Agency applies the fundamental principle of equality and balances the right of persons with disabilities to be provided with services that meet their disability-related needs with the transportation service provider's operational, commercial and regulatory responsibilities.
The Agency eliminates undue obstacles in three ways:
- by developing and monitoring compliance with regulations, codes of practice and standards concerning the level of accessibility in modes of transportation under federal jurisdiction;
- by eliminating problems before they occur by responding to pre-travel inquiries and by educating persons with disabilities and transportation service providers regarding their rights and responsibilities; and
- by resolving complaints on a case-by-case basis using an approach that is consistent with that used for identifying and remedying discrimination under human rights law.
For advice on accessibility issues, the Agency consults its Accessibility Advisory Committee, made up of representatives from the community of persons with disabilities, the transportation industry (carriers that operate air, rail and ferry services and their associations) and other interested parties.
In order to produce this resource tool, the Agency has conducted research and held consultations with members of its Accessibility Advisory Committee and other interested parties.
Due to the complexity of travelling by air with an attendant for safety purposes, the Agency held additional consultations with air carriers and their associations, associations representing a wide range of disabilities (i.e. mobility, sensory and cognitive disabilities) and other interested parties.
As a preliminary step, questionnaires were completed to collect information on the situations where airline passengers with disabilities may be required to travel with an attendant for safety-related reasons. The Agency then held a consultation meeting in an effort to obtain further details and clarification about the respective positions of the air industry and the community of persons with disabilities.
All participants to the consultations were given a chance to provide comments on this resource tool prior to its publication.
Persons with disabilities have a right to an equal opportunity to benefit from the same level of transportation services afforded to others; this is called the right to equal access.
Independent access is an integral part of this right. Persons with disabilities want as much independence in life as possible and their use of transportation services is no exception. They should be able to move through the system with as much independence as possible.
Carriers have a duty to respect the right to equal access by accommodating persons with disabilities up to the point of undue hardship.
This means that:
- Carriers must provide accommodations that give a person with a disability equal access to transportation services.
- Carriers must provide these accommodations up to the point where doing so is either unreasonable, impracticable or in some cases impossible; in other words, up to the point that the accommodation would create undue hardship.
There may be situations, however, where a carrier will require a person with a disability to travel with an attendant, even though it limits the person's independent access.
Most carriers require a passenger to travel with an attendant if the passenger is not deemed to be self-reliant.
Carriers generally consider a self-reliant passenger to be someone who:
- is independent, self-sufficient, and capable of taking care of all their needs during travel;
- needs no special or unusual attention beyond that given to the general public (other than assistance required by regulation or otherwise provided to meet disability-related needs, such as assistance with boarding and disembarking. For a complete list of services provided, see Appendix A).
In some cases, the carrier may already provide all the assistance that a passenger needs to travel independently, and therefore the help of an attendant will not be required. In other cases, passengers may choose to plan their trip to ensure that they will not require any assistance.
In the following sections, we will discuss what services are normally provided by carriers, as well as the situations where persons with disabilities may be required to travel with an attendant, based on their need for:
- assistance with personal care or other disability-related needs
- assistance with safety-related functions
We will also provide helpful tips on how persons with disabilities can plan their trip.
Air, rail and ferry carriers are expected to provide the following services when they are requested at least 48 hours before departure. When a request is made less than 48 hours prior to departure, carriers are expected to make make reasonable efforts to provide the service.
Services provided before and after travel
- Assistance with registration at the check in counter.
- Assistance with the stowage of assistive devices such as wheelchairs, scooters, walkers, etc., subject to applicable regulations on security, safety, and hazardous materials. For more information on the carriage of mobility aids, see the Agency's resource tool, Carriage of Mobility Aids On Board Planes, Trains and Ferries.
- Assistance in proceeding from the check in counter to the boarding area (including transferring from the passenger's personal mobility aid to a mobility aid provided by the carrier or terminal operator).
- Assistance in boarding and disembarking (including, if needed, transferring from a mobility aid to and from the passenger's seat). A rail carrier may require the assistance of the person's attendant or, in the event they are not travelling with an attendant, someone who assists them at a station that is unmanned or that does not have a level boarding platform or a lift.
- Assistance in proceeding to the general public area within the terminal upon arrival at destination or, in the case of air travel, reaching a representative of another airline for a change of flight.
- Assistance in retrieving checked baggage.
Services provided during travel
- Assistance in stowing and retrieving carry-on items.
- Limited assistance with meals (e.g., opening packages, identifying items and cutting large food portions) and, when requested, inquiring periodically during travel about the passenger's needs.
- Assistance with transferring the passenger between a wheelchair, onboard chair or other mobility aid and a seat during travel, as well as assistance, other than by carrying, with moving to/from a washroom. A carrier may require a person's attendant to assist with the transfer.
Services related to safety
Carriers are responsible for the safety of passengers, crew and the general public. However, in emergency situations, carrier personnel may not have sufficient time to provide individual assistance to passengers.
Thus, other than providing an individual pre-travel safety briefing, as needed, carriers have no regulatory obligation to provide a higher level of assistance to a person with a disability during an evacuation or any other in-travel safety-related situation than they would provide to other passengers.
For a full list of services that are normally provided by air, rail and ferry carriers, refer to Appendix A. As noted, however, it is essential that a person with a disability still contact the carrier to know exactly what services it does, or does not provide.
Carriers are not required to, and do not normally provide, the following personal-care services during travel:
- assistance with eating
- assistance with administering medication
- assistance in the onboard lavatory
Persons with disabilities may want, or may be required by a carrier, to travel with an attendant if they need any such assistance.
A passenger is more likely to need assistance with personal care on longer trips, although they may choose to break up a long trip into shorter segments, or take measures to ensure that they will not need such assistance. For example, a passenger who normally needs assistance with eating might choose to refrain from eating during travel or carry personal food items that they are capable of consuming without assistance. It is important to note, however, that a carrier may still require the passenger to travel with an attendant to address situations such as departure delays and route changes, which could significantly lengthen the travel time.
Attendants may provide assistance with other needs that are not related to personal care, for example:
- Assisting air carrier personnel with transferring the person between a wheelchair, onboard chair or other mobility aid and the person's passenger seat during the flight. Additionally, a rail carrier may require the assistance of the person's attendant in boarding and disembarking the person at stations that are unmanned or that do not have a level boarding platform or a lift; and,
- Providing assistance to the person who, as a result of their disability (e.g. certain mental health conditions and cognitive impairments), cannot travel alone.
Persons with disabilities who wish to travel with an attendant for either personal care or other disability-related reasons should contact the carrier well in advance of their travel (see Planning a trip). They may wish to enquire about any special fares that might be available and the conditions for these, as well as the terms and conditions of travel respecting attendants.
How carriers assess a person with a disability's need to travel with an attendant for personal care and other needs
Generally, a person with a disability who needs an attendant for personal care or other disability-related needs in their daily living will also need one during travel.
In some instances, carriers may require additional information, including medical documentation, regarding a person's disability or the disability-related services they need during travel.
The carrier may also require the person to obtain medical clearance from its own medical personnel. In these cases, the carrier, in good faith and using its reasonable discretion, determines that the person with a disability requires medical clearance where their safety or well-being, or that of other passengers, is at issue. Some carriers have a long-term medical approval process, where persons with a permanent or stable disability do not require medical clearance every time they travel.
If the carrier is of the opinion that a person with a disability requires an attendant for assistance with personal care while on board the aircraft, train or ferry, and the person asserts that they will not need such assistance, the carrier will usually accept the person's determination of self-reliance and allow them to travel without an attendant.
In such instances, the carrier should ensure that the person understands the services that are not provided during travel, so that they can make an informed decision as to whether they should travel without an attendant. Similarly, the person with a disability should be prepared to explain to the carrier why they do not need assistance during travel—and possibly provide more information or medical documents.
Carriers are required to comply with various rules and regulations regarding the physical safety of transportation facilities and operations, as well as the safety of their passengers, personnel, and the public. These include, but are not limited to, provisions made under the Aeronautics Act, the Railway Safety Act, the Canada Shipping Act, and the Canada Labour Code. Carriers may also implement their own safety policies and procedures.
The Agency does not establish safety rules and regulations. However, in exercising its accessibility mandate, the Agency does consider safety issues.
For example, the Agency considers safety implications for persons with disabilities relating to the provision of transportation-related services, and whether carriers' safety-related policies inadvertently create undue obstacles to the mobility of persons with disabilities.
Many carriers have established policies that require a passenger with a disability to travel with an attendant if the passenger requires assistance with safety-related functions (i.e., if the passenger is not deemed to be self-reliant).
A passenger might be deemed non self-reliant in the context of safety requirements (and may therefore be required to travel with an attendant) if the carrier finds that they need assistance with any of the following safety-related functions:
- Adequately communicating with the carrier's personnel.
- Making their way to the exit in the event of an emergency evacuation.
- Being able to respond/react to safety-related information or instructions.
- In the case of air travel, fastening their safety belt.
- Reaching for and donning an oxygen mask.
- Retrieving and donning a life preserver/flotation device.
How carriers assess a person with a disability's need to travel with an attendant for safety reasons
Ensuring the collective safety of passengers and crew and reducing risks to others in the federal transportation system is important enough to warrant, in some cases, overriding the desire of a person with a disability to travel independently.
In determining whether a person with a disability must travel with an attendant for safety reasons, a carrier must balance the person's desire to travel independently with the need to protect their safety and that of the other passengers, crew, and the public.
As they do so, carriers are expected to:
- apply the human rights principle of the assumption of risk (i.e., that persons with disabilities should be allowed, where possible, to assume some personal risk, subject to the three step test discussed below) and assess whether the risk to the individual passenger is reasonable, and
- consider whether the risk extends beyond the passenger with the disability and involves others.
In other words, persons with disabilities should be allowed to assume some personal risk, unless the carrier justifies the requirement for the person to travel with an attendant due to safety concerns.
The standard of reasonable safety
With respect to safety, the possibilities range from a minimum level of safety to absolute safety. The Supreme Court of Canada has recognized that in the context of public transportation, a standard of "absolute safety" (i.e. no risks are tolerated) is impossibleNote 1.
Carriers inherently assume some risk by not assessing the fitness for travel of all passengers, given the likelihood that some passengers whose fitness for travel is not assessed may not be able to react properly during an emergency situation.
These passengers may include a significant portion of elderly passengers and passengers with invisible disabilities whose fitness for travel is not assessed because they have not requested assistance from the carrier.
Consequently, carriers are expected to apply an objective of "reasonable safety" (i.e. a reasonable level of risk is tolerated) in assessing whether a person can travel independently.
A three step test for safety risk assessments
A carrier may justify requiring that a person travel with an attendant for safety reasons by demonstrating that:
- the requirement is rationally connected to the transportation service;
- the requirement was adopted based on an honest and good faith belief that it was necessary in order to provide the transportation service; and
- it cannot provide any form of accommodation without incurring undue hardship.
The first element of the test involves identifying why the carrier is requiring a person with a disability to travel with an attendant.
As the safety requirements put in place by carriers are designed to protect passengers, it is necessary to consistently apply the reasonable safety standard. Carriers cannot set a higher safety standard for some persons with disabilities than the reasonable safety standard that applies for other passengers who are allowed to travel independently in spite of functional limitations.
In order to meet the second element of the test, a carrier must demonstrate that its requirement that persons with disabilities travel with an attendant is based on an honest and good faith belief that this is required to meet its reasonable safety standard.
To ensure a consistent level of safety for passengers, carriers should develop and apply a standardized risk assessment methodology with explicit criteria to individually assess a person's ability to travel independently without compromising the carrier's objective of reasonable safety.
This individual assessment will serve to support an honest and good faith belief that a particular person must travel with an attendant for safety purposes. Without a proper, formal risk analysis, a carrier's individual assessment of a person's ability to travel without an attendant is likely to be too subjective and could result in discrimination.
In other words, claiming that independent travel poses a safety risk is not enough to justify requiring a person with a disability to travel with an attendant.
A carrier's risk analysis should include the following steps:
- provide the person with a disability the opportunity to show how they can compensate for their disability and travel independently and still meet the carrier's standard of reasonable safety; and
- consider ways in which the carrier can allow the person with a disability to travel independently through risk mitigation measures and still meet its standard of reasonable safety.
Any risk that remains after compensating and risk mitigation measures are explored should be assessed in terms of the following factors to determine the level of the residual risk:
- The nature of the safety risk—what exactly is the risk and what harm could result from it?
- The scope of the safety risk—who does it affect?
- The severity of the safety risk—if the harm resulting from the risk occurs, how serious would it be?
- The probability of the risk—how likely is it that the safety risk will occur?
- The type of risk—is the risk one that would normally be tolerated within society as a whole?
The safety standard that carriers require persons with disabilities to meet will be justified if it addresses a residual risk that is not normally tolerated in travel-related situations.
If, for safety reasons, a carrier questions a person with a disability's wish to travel without an attendant, the carrier needs to properly assess the person's ability to compensate for their disability.
Determining whether a person needs to travel with an attendant or can travel independently must be made on a case-by-case basis. Specifically, carriers need to take into account the unique capabilities of the person and the extent to which the person has developed coping mechanisms that increase their level of self-reliance.
Because impairments generally have a range of severity, carriers should not make assumptions about a person's capabilities based on a previous interaction with a passenger with a similar disability, or resort to using a "one-size-fits-all" approach or policies that do not take into account each person's abilities.
For example, as with most other impairments, persons who are deaf-blind have varying degrees of hearing and visual impairment. The impairments may be partial or total. Additionally, a passenger who is deaf-blind may be able to sense their environment through vibrations and the movement of others and thus may be able to compensate for not being able to hear the instructions of the crew.
In emergency situations, passengers who are deaf-blind may also be able to sense or feel the flow of traffic towards an emergency exit, or feel the effects of decompression and intuitively know to don their oxygen mask. Additionally, like many passengers, they can choose to leave their seatbelt on for the entire trip, thereby complying with any instruction by the crew for passengers to fasten their seatbelts. Finally, passengers who are deaf-blind may be able to sense the need to brace themselves for an emergency landing/stop through the vibrations or movement of the aircraft or train.
Similarly, persons who use a wheelchair may have above-average upper body strength that may enable them to make their way to an emergency exit despite being non-ambulatory.
Although carriers are expected to assess the need for a safety attendant on a case-by-case basis, it is recognized that they will do so in the context of their broader obligation to ensure the safety of all passengers, their crew and the public as well as that of the person with a disability.
Carriers' risk assessments are also expected to incorporate risk mitigation measures that they could take in order for a person with a disability to travel without an attendant when they want to travel independently. Any risk mitigation measures taken by carriers should only be implemented after a discussion with and the agreement of the person with a disability, and must respect the individual's disability-related needs.
The following describes mitigation measures that, in and of themselves may not achieve a reasonable safety standard, but when combined with other mitigation and/or compensating measures might achieve a reasonable safety standard.
It is important to note, however, that this resource tool does not prescribe under which circumstances a carrier should implement such measures as carriers determine their own policies.
Examples of mitigation measures that carriers may decide to use
Case: A carrier is concerned that a passenger with a disability travelling without an attendant could impede the exit of other passengers during an emergency evacuation.
The carrier may choose to assess whether such a passenger could travel independently if they agree to sit in certain seats or rows where they would be unlikely to impede the exit of others while being more likely to exit themselves with no additional individual assistance during an emergency situation.
Specifically, the carrier could discuss with the person with a disability whether they wish to sit in the row immediately in front of or behind an exit so they are as close to an exit as possible. Additionally, the carrier could discuss the possibility of the passenger sitting in a seat (for example, a window seat) in which they may be less likely to impede the exit of other passengers during an emergency evacuation.
Furthermore, a carrier may choose to offer passengers who are deaf-blind tactile orientations of the equipment to show them where the emergency exits are and how to use oxygen masks and flotation devices.
Carriers could also explore the possibility of discreetly seeking a volunteer passenger to serve as a safety attendant, provided the passenger with a disability has given their prior consent and has been kept fully informed throughout the process. Similarly, air carriers may request a "deadheading" crew member (i.e., one who is travelling on the same trip but not working) to serve as the passenger's safety attendant.
It should be noted that in situations such as last-minute itinerary changes or where there are multiple segments on a passenger's itinerary that, in some cases, may involve connecting to another carrier, volunteer safety attendants or "deadheading" crew members may not be a viable option as the carrier may not be able to confirm that a volunteer passenger or "deadheading" crew member would be available for the additional segment of a person's itinerary.
While the Agency recognizes the right to self-determination, this right is not absolute and needs to be balanced against a carrier's operational, economic and safety considerations. In some situations, the safety considerations may outweigh the right for a person to travel independently.
As discussed above, if after an appropriate individual assessment, a carrier deems the safety risk associated with independent travel to be unreasonable, it is possible that the person may need to accept the carrier's determination and travel with an attendant.
In these situations, effective planning and communication are critical.
Persons with disabilities should contact their carrier well in advance of travel and maintain communication throughout the reservation process (see Planning a trip) to ensure that their disability-related needs will be met and that they are aware of the carrier's requirements regarding travelling with an attendant.
If a person is required to travel with an attendant for safety reasons, the attendant is expected to assist the person with safety-related functions, including one or more of the six functions listed above.
A carrier may require an attendant to show that they are capable of providing assistance with these safety-related functions.
If you are planning a trip and intend on travelling with an attendant, or if you travel independently but require some assistance from the carrier, contact your carrier as early as possible.
Providing specific information to the carrier will help ensure that the carrier is fully aware of your needs and that all issues are understood and properly addressed before the day of your travel.
Before travel, you should:
- Find out what services carriers may provide to meet your disability-related needs (for more information, see "What services are normally provided by carriers") and what information carriers may require from persons with a disability by consulting carriers' Web sites or written information, such as brochures (including information about attendants), or by contacting the carrier directly.
- Inform the carrier in advance (typically at the time of booking or at least 48 hours prior to departure) of your plan to travel and discuss the services you need. Advance notice is often necessary to ensure that the carrier has enough time to make the arrangements to meet a person's disability-related needs. However, carriers will make a reasonable effort to accommodate a person with a disability who provides less than 48 hours of notice.
- Confirm how far in advance of departure you should arrive at the terminal/station to allow sufficient time for check in, boarding, and individualized safety briefings or orientations, if required.
- Ask the carrier if it has any special fares and terms and conditions applicable to attendants.
It is important to note that in some instances, carriers may require additional information regarding a person's disability or the disability-related services they need during travel, including medical documents. Carriers may also require a person to obtain medical clearance to travel (see "Assistance with other disability-related needs" for more information).
The provision of services, new equipment or facilities, or modifications to a rule, policy, practice, or existing equipment or facilities in order to meet a disability-related need.
- Activity limitation
Difficulties an individual experiences while executing activities, which may range from a slight to severe deviation in terms of quality or quantity in executing an activity in a manner or to the extent that is expected of people without the impairment. The activity limitation must be significant enough to result in an inherent difficulty in executing a task or action.
- Adequate notice
What constitutes adequate notice of a person's disability-related needs will vary depending on the situation. However, as reflected in Part VII of the Air Transportation Regulations and in Agency decisions, 48 hours prior to departure is generally considered to constitute adequate notice.
- Equal access
Equal opportunity for a person with a disability to benefit from the same level of transportation services afforded to others.
- Federal transportation system
The following transportation services, which are under the authority of Parliament:
- air carriers operating within, to, or from Canada;
- airports located in Canada;
- passenger rail carriers, ferry operators, and bus operators providing services between provinces and/or between Canada and the United States, and their stations or terminals located in Canada; and
- services that are integral to the transportation services provided by a carrier or terminal located in Canada.
A loss or abnormality of a body part (i.e., structure) or the loss or deviation in body function (i.e., physiological function). The existence of an impairment may be established by using the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health publication, other related WHO publications and/or medical documentation.
A rule, policy, practice, physical barrier, etc. that directly or indirectly discriminates against a person with a disability and has the effect of denying the person with a disability equal access to services that are available to others in the federal transportation system such that accommodation is required from the service provider.
- Participation restriction
A problem an individual experiences in involvement in life situations, which is determined by comparing the individual's experience with that of an individual without an activity limitation. An individual will experience a participation restriction for the purposes of Part V of the CTA if they require particular measures to be taken in order that they have equal access to the federal transportation network, which other passengers without the activity limitation do not require.
- Person with a disability
A person has a disability for the purposes of Part V of the CTA if they have an impairment and an activity limitation and experience a participation restriction in the context of the federal transportation system.
- Reasonable safety
A safety standard in which some risks are tolerated as opposed to an absolute safety standard in which no risks are tolerated.
- Undue hardship
Excessive hardship as determined by evaluating the adverse consequences on the service provider of providing accommodation, considering factors such as:
- safety constraints;
- operational constraints;
- economic and financial constraints; and
- physical or structural constraints.
- Undue obstacle
An obstacle that can be removed without imposing undue hardship on the transportation service provider.
Resolving accessible transportation complaints
- Disability-related complaint form (available through the complaint wizard)
- Disability assessment form
- Canada Transportation Act, specifically Part V
- Air Transportation Regulations, specifically Part VII
- Canadian Transportation Agency Rules (Dispute Proceedings and Certain Rules Applicable to All Proceedings)
- Canadian Transportation Agency General Rules
- Personnel Training for the Assistance of Persons with Disabilities Regulations
Codes of Practice
- Aircraft Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities (fixed-wing aircraft with 30 or more passenger seats)
- Accessibility Guidelines for Small Aircraft - Services for persons with disabilities on aircraft with 29 and fewer passenger seats
- Ferry Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities
- Passenger Rail Car Accessibility and Terms and Conditions of Carriage by Rail of Persons with Disabilities
- Passenger Terminal Accessibility and related Guide
- Removing Communication Barriers for Travellers with Disabilities and related Guide
- Take Charge of Your Travel: A Guide for Persons with Disabilities
- Carriage of Mobility Aids On Board Planes, Trains and Ferries
- Accessible Transportation Complaints: A Resource Tool for Persons with Disabilities
- Accessible Transportation Complaints: A Resource Tool for Service Providers
The following tables compare the accessibility-related services that are either normally provided, or not normally provided, by carriers. A person requiring a service marked with No may want to, or be required to, travel with an attendant.
Note: The information in the following tables does not represent the policies of all carriers. Travellers should contact the carrier as far as possible in advance of travel to know exactly what services it does, or does not provide.
Table 1: Services relating to personal care or other disability-related needs generally provided by air, rail and ferry carriers
|Services relating to personal care or other disability-related needs||Air||Rail||Ferry|
|Assistance with registration/check in||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Assistance with the stowage of assistive devices such as wheelchairs, scooters, walkers, etc., subject to applicable regulations on security, safety, and hazardous materials||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Assistance in proceeding from the check in counter to the boarding area||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Assistance in transferring from the passenger's personal mobility device to a mobility device provided by the carrier||Yes||Yes||N/A|
|Assistance in boarding and disembarking||Yes||YesNote 2||Yes|
|Assistance with transferring the person between a wheelchair, onboard chair or other mobility aid and a seat during travel (a person's attendant may be required to assist), as well as assistance, other than by carrying, with moving to/from a washroom.||Yes||Yes||N/A|
|Assistance in proceeding from the mode of transport to the general public area within the terminal or reaching a representative of another carrier||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Assistance in retrieving checked baggage||Yes||Yes||N/A|
|Assistance in stowing and retrieving carry-on items||Yes||Yes||N/A|
|Limited assistance with meals (e.g., opening packages, identifying items and cutting large food portions) and inquiring periodically during travel about the passenger's needs||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Assistance, other than that noted above, required by persons who, as a result of their mental health condition and/or cognitive disability, cannot travel alone||No||No||No|
|Assistance with eating||No||No||No|
|Assistance within the onboard lavatory||No||No||No|
|Assistance with administering medication||No||No||No|
|Services relating to safety||Air||Rail||Ferry|
|Providing individual pre-travel safety briefings and demonstrations, if needed||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Providing assistance in addition to what is provided to other passengers during safety-related situations||No||No||No|
|Individual assistance in getting to the exit in the event of an emergency evacuation||No||No||No|
|Assistance with securing a wheelchair or mobility device to an onboard tie-down||N/A||Yes||N/A|
|Fastening a safety belt, if required by the carrier||No||No||No|
|Retrieving and donning a life preserver/flotation device||No||N/A||No|
|Reaching for and donning an oxygen mask||No||N/A||N/A|